There are many types of art. Manifestations of art constitute artistic disciplines. Among these, the fine arts and the applied arts are usually distinguished.
The fine arts are painting, sculpture, music, performing arts, literature, architecture, or film. The applied arts are broader, encompassing expressions such as cabinetmaking and ceramics.
But in addition to these, there are many more artistic manifestations that are not included in these classifications. In this article, we want to make known what are the most important types of art are known and what they consist of.
Painting is the art of making images with color pigments on two-dimensional surfaces. For example, painting on canvas or wall painting. Painting is divided into two main types: figurative painting and non-figurative or abstract painting. It is part of the fine arts.
It can be executed on a wide variety of substrates, such as stone, board, fabric, paper, ceramic, stucco, plaster, glass, and metals. Likewise, it is expressed in a wide variety of techniques such as oil, tempera, fresco, tempera, watercolor, wax, pastel, acrylic, aerosol, among others.
Drawing is an art that consists of the delineation of images with pencil, charcoal or ink on two-dimensional surfaces. The drawing can be conceived as part of the painting. However, it can also lead to self-contained parts. It is part of the so-called plastic arts or visual arts.
Engraving is an art that obtains prints through the printing of wooden or metal plates on support. These impressions can be repeated many times. Each repetition has small variations and can be intervened. There are various engraving techniques, such as woodcut, screen printing, lithography, lithography, and monotype. Although it is frequently used to reproduce images, many artists regard engraving as an autonomous art of painting.
The sculpture consists of modeling solid matter to build three-dimensional figures. The techniques can be as varied as a modeling in marble or clay, casting in bronze, or assembling. There are various types of sculpture, such as relief, round sculpture, and kinetic sculpture. The sculpture is part of the fine arts and, as such, does not fulfill a practical but an aesthetic function.
Art of glass
The art of glass consists of the design and elaboration of artistic pieces in this material, from stained glass to sculptural pieces. It does not include the blown glass technique, intended only for the mass manufacture of utilitarian objects.
Goldsmithing is the art of designing and making utilitarian objects and pieces of metal jewelry. It can be practiced with precious metals, such as gold, platinum, and silver, or semi-precious metals, such as copper, iron, nickel, titanium, zinc, etc. It is part of the applied arts. However, goldsmithing is also a sculpture technique.
Cabinetmaking is the art of designing and making wooden furniture and utilitarian objects. It is part of the applied arts. It differs from carpentry in that the latter is limited to solving practical needs. Instead, the purpose of cabinetmaking is to give artistic value to the furniture or created object. In fact, in some cases, the function of the object can be compromised.
Ceramics is the art of modeling clay or clay to create utilitarian objects with artistic values. It is usually classified among the applied arts. However, ceramics can also be a sculptural technique.
Architecture is an art that consists of the design, planning, and construction of physical spaces. It is considered one of the fine arts because the design and function of the building are not limited to shelter, but rather meet cultural needs. For example, the design of churches and temples symbolizes the religious culture of the peoples.
Literature is the art of expression through the word, whether written or spoken. It is one of the fine arts par excellence. Literature expresses itself in many forms and genres. In written literature, poetry, narrative (novel, short story, chronicle), essay and dramaturgy stand out. In oral literature riddles, tongue twisters, popular songs, legends, and myths also stand out.
Music is the art of combining sounds and silences in sequences of time, to produce stimuli that are pleasant to the ear. It is one of the fine arts. It covers both composition and performance through instruments, including the voice. Music dialogues with other artistic forms, such as the performing arts. Some examples of this are opera and ballet, conceived to be staged by singers and dancers respectively.
The theater is the art of representing actions and parliaments in front of the public. It is considered a literary genre as well, as it depends on a script written by a playwright. The theater integrates musical, pictorial elements, and other artistic manifestations. It covers genres as diverse as classical theater (tragedy and comedy), puppet theater, the art of mime, musicals, etc.
Dance is the art of articulating body movements, almost always to the rhythm of the music. The dance sequences are known as choreography. It is part of the so-called performing arts. Dance is expressed in forms as diverse as ballet, contemporary dance, folk dances, and many other manifestations.
Circus arts refer to the various artistic expressions that are practiced in circuses. Much of the circus arts are based on the display of physical prowess or extraordinary abilities, but acts of animation are also exhibited. For example, acrobatics, juggling, clown art (clowns), magic, trapeze art, tightrope walking (the art of tightrope walking), etc.
Photography is the art of obtaining images of conceptual and aesthetic value with the photographic camera. Like other expressions of the visual arts, the photographer applies visual composition criteria, such as framing, lighting, etc. Photography supports the intervention and manipulation of the photographic image. To do this, you can use techniques such as manual coloring, photomontage, among others.
Cinema, known as the seventh art, consists of the projection of moving images and sound through the screen. Therefore, it is an audiovisual art. Given its expressive possibilities, it is usually used to tell stories, whether they are fiction or documentaries. Cinema represents the synthesis of the arts, since producing a film requires the intervention of visual artists, musicians, designers, photographers, screenwriters, actors, etc.
Comics or comics is a graphic-narrative art that tells stories through sequences of still images, called vignettes. These vignettes often include speech bubbles. Some famous comic examples are Batman, Superman, Calvin & Hobbes, Mafalda, Condorito, etc.
Graphic design or visual communication
It consists of the conceptualization and projection of visual communication objects, such as posters, logos, brand image, packaging, typography, layout, illustrations for books, etc. It is an expression of the applied arts.
Industrial design conceptualizes and projects utilitarian objects or machinery to give them an aesthetic value. In this sense, it is considered one of the concrete expressions of the applied arts.
Fashion design conceptualizes and projects garments. It is considered an artistic activity because, unlike the traditional craft of dressmaking, it is based on cultural and aesthetic concepts. Furthermore, it demands a high level of tailoring. So it is not surprising that some designer pieces displayed on catwalks are not intended for use.
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